NPTEL Air Pollution and Control Week 7 Assignment Answers 2024

Air pollution stands as a critical concern, affecting public health, ecosystems, and climate. Understanding its sources, impacts, and control measures is paramount. This comprehensive guide delves into the intricacies of Week 7 Assignment Answers for the NPTEL Air Pollution and Control course, offering insights and solutions to tackle this pressing issue.

NPTEL Air Pollution and Control Week 7 Assignment Answers 2024


Sources of Air Pollution

Anthropogenic Sources

Human activities contribute significantly to air pollution. Industries, transportation, and agricultural practices emit various pollutants into the atmosphere. Combustion processes, including fossil fuel combustion in vehicles and power plants, release pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM).


Natural Sources

While human activities are primary contributors to air pollution, natural sources also play a role. Volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and dust storms release particulate matter and gases into the air. Biogenic emissions from vegetation and microbial activity also contribute to air pollution.

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Which type of health effects experienced after the exposure of air pollutants can lead to chronic respiratory or heart diseases and cancer?


Short term effects

Long term effects

Immediate effects

There are no effects.

Answer: Long term effects

Long term effects of air pollutant exposure can lead to chronic respiratory or heart diseases and even cancer. These effects develop over prolonged periods of exposure, often manifesting after years of contact with pollutants.


Which of the following pollutants is responsible for acute health effects due to the formation of carboxyhemoglobin in blood?


CO

Lead

NO2

PM

Answer: CO

Carbon monoxide (CO) is responsible for acute health effects due to its affinity for hemoglobin, forming carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. This reduces the blood's ability to carry oxygen, leading to acute symptoms such as headache, dizziness, and in severe cases, death.


Which type of samplers are used for long term monitoring of NO2 for exposure assessment?


Tube type

Badge type

Questionnaire

Biomarker

Answer: Tube type

Tube type samplers are commonly used for long term monitoring of NO2 for exposure assessment. These samplers can be deployed for extended periods, allowing for continuous monitoring of NO2 levels in the environment.


Which of the following pollutants concentration is expressed in Becquerels per cubic meter (Bq/m3)?


NO2

VOCs

Formaldehyde

Radon

Answer: Radon

Radon concentration is expressed in Becquerels per cubic meter (Bq/m3). Radon is a radioactive gas that can seep into buildings from the ground and accumulate to potentially hazardous levels indoors.


Match the suitable options for types of mixing (List – I) with their graphical representation (List – II) that occur within the enclosure in a box model for indoor air quality modeling and choose the correct option given as below:


P-2, Q-1, R-3, S-4

P-2, Q-1, R-4, S-3

P-1, Q-2, R-4, S-3

P-1, Q-2, R-3, S-4

Answer: P-2, Q-1, R-4, S-3

In a box model, mixing types are represented graphically as follows:


P: Diffusion

Q: Dispersion

R: Turbulent Mixing

S: Laminar Mixing

Which of the following indoor air quality modeling techniques is widely applied when a moving source occurs within a confined space?


Box model

Analytical tools

Advection model

None of the above

Answer: Advection model

The advection model is widely applied when a moving source occurs within a confined space in indoor air quality modeling. This model considers the transport of pollutants due to bulk air movement.


In a Fibrous media air filter, the MERV (Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value) for a HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter is:


Lower than 1

1 to 4

5 to 13

14 to 16

Answer: 14 to 16

For a HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter in a Fibrous media air filter system, the MERV (Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value) typically falls within the range of 14 to 16. This indicates a high level of efficiency in capturing airborne particles.


Which of the following air cleaning technologies can generate nitrogen dioxide as a byproduct emission?


Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO)

Plasma air cleaners

Electrostatic Precipitators

Fibrous Media Air Filters

Answer: Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO)

Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) air cleaning technology can generate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a byproduct emission. This occurs as part of the oxidation process when pollutants are exposed to UV light on the catalyst surface.


In the case study related to Personal Exposure to Fine Particles, what was the duration for sampling of the participants?


24 hours

36 hours

48 hours

72 hours

Answer: 48 hours

In the case study related to Personal Exposure to Fine Particles, the duration for sampling of the participants was 48 hours. This duration allows for a comprehensive assessment of personal exposure to fine particles over a typical two-day period.


In the case study related to Personal Exposure to Fine Particles, the expression for calculating the exposure to PM2.5 is given as:


Exposure = Concentration x Time

Answer: Exposure = Concentration x Time

In the case study related to Personal Exposure to Fine Particles, the expression for calculating the exposure to PM2.5 is indeed given as Exposure = Concentration x Time. This formula represents the basic principle of exposure assessment, where exposure is determined by the concentration of pollutants and the duration of exposure.



Impacts of Air Pollution

Public Health

Air pollution poses severe health risks to humans, causing respiratory diseases, cardiovascular issues, and premature death. Particulate matter and air pollutants like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can exacerbate asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory ailments.


Environmental Degradation

The adverse effects of air pollution extend beyond human health to environmental degradation. Acid rain, ozone depletion, and eutrophication are among the environmental consequences of air pollution. Pollutants can harm ecosystems, leading to loss of biodiversity and habitat destruction.


Control Measures

Regulatory Policies

Governments worldwide have implemented regulatory policies to curb air pollution. Emission standards, pollution permits, and environmental impact assessments are regulatory tools aimed at controlling emissions from industries, vehicles, and other sources.


Technological Solutions

Advancements in technology have facilitated the development of pollution control measures. From catalytic converters in vehicles to scrubbers in industrial facilities, various technologies exist to mitigate air pollution. Additionally, renewable energy sources like solar and wind power offer cleaner alternatives to fossil fuels.


Public Awareness and Education

Raising awareness about air pollution and its impacts is crucial in fostering behavior change. Educational campaigns, community outreach programs, and environmental advocacy efforts play a vital role in promoting sustainable practices and reducing emissions.


Week 7 Assignment Answers

Question 1: Discuss the role of catalytic converters in reducing vehicular emissions.

Catalytic converters are emission control devices installed in vehicles to reduce the harmful effects of exhaust gases. They contain catalysts that facilitate chemical reactions, converting toxic pollutants like carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons into less harmful substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapor. By promoting cleaner combustion, catalytic converters help mitigate air pollution from automobiles, contributing to improved air quality and public health.


Question 2: Explain the concept of cap-and-trade mechanisms in controlling industrial emissions.

Cap-and-trade mechanisms are market-based approaches used to limit greenhouse gas emissions from industrial sources. Under this system, a regulatory authority sets a cap on the total emissions allowed within a specified period. Industrial facilities are allocated emission allowances, which they can trade with one another. By creating economic incentives for emission reductions, cap-and-trade programs encourage industries to invest in cleaner technologies and practices, ultimately reducing air pollution and mitigating climate change.


mermaid

Copy code

graph LR

A[Industrial Emissions] --> B(Cap-and-Trade Mechanisms)

B --> C(Emission Allowances)

B --> D(Economic Incentives)

C --> D

Conclusion

In conclusion, addressing air pollution requires a multifaceted approach encompassing regulatory measures, technological innovations, and public engagement. By understanding the sources, impacts, and control measures associated with air pollution, we can work towards creating a cleaner and healthier environment for current and future generations. The insights provided in this guide aim to empower individuals and organizations to take proactive steps in combating air pollution and fostering sustainable development.

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